Let's face it: Some single-serving coffee pod flavors tend to have a bit of a bad rep because they can sometimes taste watered-down, over-roasted, or even bitter. Luckily, more and more major coffee brands have created delicious varieties that combine the ease of single-serve coffee pods with proven great flavor. From sustainably sourced brands to smaller artisanal roasts, these coffee pods are all top-rated picks.


The best dark roast was Koffee Kult dark roast. This 100% arabica coffee blend, sourced from Colombia, Guatemala and Sumatra offers a full body and rich option for your coffee palate. Our testers knew that this was a dark coffee roast by its strong aroma, but were pleasantly surprised by the woodfired taste. Most testers did call out the bitterness of this coffee, but pointed out that it didn’t linger and the acidity was enjoyable. Again, this winner is one of the most expensive coffees we tested at $.88 per ounce, but if you love the bold coffee taste, this is for you.


I work right by Equal Exchange and like to go on walks mid morning to grab my coffee. Working in this area, there's a lot of options for coffee. I tried Equal Exchange because I wanted to be more ethical in my purchasing decisions despite paying more. I heard good things about Equal Exchange from my coworkers but I experienced really bad service which is really unusual in places like this (I think). The cashier was SO rude to me especially when I asked if they had any flavors to put in the coffee. It was a bummer because normally my walks at work to coffee shops are one of the best parts of my day! The coffee is really good here though, so I may come back in hopes to interact with more friendly employees.
This is made by the same manufacturer as the coffee that has been mentioned above. However, this is not decaf. It is a dark French roast, which uses premium beans from South and Central America. It has an intense and smoky flavor, which may not be appreciated by all. This is for those people who like their coffee to have a strong character. It is made only with the ripest red cherries that have been roasted by experts to extract the maximum flavor in every cup.
The Marley Organic is a full-bodied organic decaf coffee that is so good you will actually want to get off your regular caffeinated one. It is also mildly acidic and a medium dark roast, as well as Kosher. What you will love most about it is the fact that it has very subtle hints of vanilla, nutmeg, cocoa, and soft spices, making it a true gourmet coffee.
The Caza Trail Coffee is a perfect blend of selected coffees from Indonesia and Latin America. This coffee is USDA certified organic and Fair Trade Certified and Kosher. It’s free from chemicals and artificial additives. The coffee is bold yet smooth, fine finish that is full-bodied with moderate acidity. You will find this organic coffee great for busy mornings or when you just require an on-the-go treat.
These K-cups worked great and made a good cup of coffee. I generally prefer a lighter roast. The flavor was very bold and for a dark roast was very good. There were no grounds or oils on the top of the coffee. It was best as the first cup of coffee in the morning as it was not decaffeinated. The cups functioned in the coffee maker well and removed most of the water in the cup after brewing so you don't drip coffee on the counter. Since this is Paul Newmans's brand I do fee like I am helping because they donate most of the profits to charity so I feel better when I use their products. Overall a good product for people that like a dark roast coffee.

Also try One of New York's (we're talking about the state now) closely guarded secrets: its less sought-after cities can be pretty great, and certainly for coffee. The gorgeous Tipico would be the envy of any town, but it belongs to an up-and-coming Buffalo neighborhood; in Rochester, the pop-up gone brick and mortar Ugly Duck is just one bright star on that city's long-running scene. Meanwhile, in Utica, perhaps the last place you'd expect to find something so up to date, Character Coffee is a multi-roasting outfit with a whole lot of appeal.
The biggest draw of organic coffee is that it's grown and harvested without chemical assistance. There are no pesticides, herbicides, fungicides or insecticides used in the agricultural process. If fertilizer is needed to help the beans grow, farmers use natural things like compost and coffee pulp. This means that organic coffee shoppers are getting home-grown beans without nasty additives of any kind.
Processing method also appears to play a significant role in qualifying for the Top 30. On this year’s list, for example, of the 20 coffees for which processing method is clearly identified, seven (vs. six in 2017) were dry- or “natural”-processed, meaning the beans were dried inside the fruit rather than after the fruit has been removed, as is the case with wet-processed or “washed” coffees. Until the last ten years or so, dry-processing was seldom applied to high-end specialty coffees like those that appear on our Top 30 list. This showing is evidence of the continuing trend toward use of alternative processing methods as creative tools for crafting distinctive cup profiles.
OXO On Barista Brain may be insignificantly on the pricey side, but it’s the best model if you’re looking for something that gives a delicious cup of coffee that re-creates the Pour Over method automatically but is fairly easy-to-use. Certified by SCA, OXO On Barista Brain is people who wanted to have a modern drip coffee maker, without sacrificing the quality of the coffee. 
Having one of the East Coast's best roasters representing your state is very nice, and we're super happy for North Carolina and everything, but it's fascinating to see that decades on, Counter Culture, now every bit a national brand, still pretty much dominates the regional scene. Apart from Friday cuppings—always open to the public—at training centers in Durham and Asheville, you won't find Counter Culture coffee bars, which is okay, because it turns out that some of the state's top shops—for instance, the twin locations of Jubala Coffee, next door in Raleigh—act as terrific brand ambassadors.
This is one of the blends that is almost available at any local warehouse and can be purchased at cash and carry price. The company works with farmers intensively to supply housing, health care, meal programs and education to workers and their respective families. They normally visit families to ensure that the coffee quality and continuance of a community aid programs. The cup of this coffee contains 345 flavor elements and it is the work of the roaster to extract all these flavors in a perfect balance. San Francisco bay has developed its own roasting system which meshes a art of roasting coffee with a science of producing consistency and perfection. You will find an organic that is roasted into fullest flavor, fresh and with quality in San Francisco.
However, I would say that this coffee in no way compares. I read the bag, revisited the site to see if it is a blend. It is not described as such, but I doubt that in a blind taste test anyone familiar with these coffees would identify it as Ethiopian, or even African. I does not have the choclatey undertones or floral scent In many ways it reminds me more of Kona (i live in Hawaii, and have ready access but do not like Kona coffee; mild, smooth but non-descript, in my opinion. It is, however, everywhere here and part of the reason we do not get nice varietals from other lands). For me, this coffee is a big disappointment.
These K-cups worked great and made a good cup of coffee. I generally prefer a lighter roast. The flavor was very bold and for a dark roast was very good. There were no grounds or oils on the top of the coffee. It was best as the first cup of coffee in the morning as it was not decaffeinated. The cups functioned in the coffee maker well and removed most of the water in the cup after brewing so you don't drip coffee on the counter. Since this is Paul Newmans's brand I do fee like I am helping because they donate most of the profits to charity so I feel better when I use their products. Overall a good product for people that like a dark roast coffee.
A. While there’s no need to break your budget for a good cup of joe, premium brands of coffee truly do produce a premium-tasting brew. Specialty coffee growers and sellers generally start with beans of higher-than-average quality. They use the best methods for roasting, they package the beans quickly after roasting them, and they offer a wider variety of bean types, flavored coffees, and specialty blends.
Many attribute Alfred Peet and his small coffee shop established in Berkeley, California in 1966 as the beginning of the craft-coffee movement in the United States. Peet’s Big Bang was introduced in 2016 as a special blend to celebrate the 50th anniversary of the coffee shop, but it has since garnered quite a loyal following and become one of the brand's most popular varieties.

Offering 100% Ethiopian Yirgacheffe in 8- ounce vacuum packed bags, Marley Coffee is sustainably grown in Jamaica. Customers enjoy it for its fruity, medium bodied flavor. It is said to have berry and floral notes with no bitter after taste. Some noted that it has a smooth flavor that is worth trying for its low acid and good taste. It is one of many popular coffees in the Marley Coffee brand.


The organic coffee co. ground brand is purely organic. This is because they offer one hundred percent certified organic coffee beans, organic flavored coffees, and organic decaf coffee. Their coffee tastes good since they directly go to the source to purchase their coffee from, and they grow their own organic coffee at their own unique farms. They always stand for the premium, fair, sustainable, and direct trade coffee at prices customers love. They also give quality organic coffee to the market.
Back before the nation's capital had a whole lot going on in the way of local coffee, Chris Vigilante was roasting for local restaurants in the basement of a District row home. These days, his product is a firm D.C. favorite, even if home base is a somewhat sprawling roastery, café and social hub, just over the line in Prince George's County. The company's adopted home seems to be agreeing with them—a second, also rather impressive space has now opened doors near the University of Maryland campus in College Park.

Approaches ranged from commitment to organic as a core value in a business model to mere coincidence or afterthought. Furthermore, several of the top-scoring coffees came from roasters who don’t label their coffees as organic, even when these coffees are farmed organically. The reason? They don’t have USDA certification as organic roasters, making it illegal for them to do so.
Tiny Footprint Coffee is the world's first carbon-negative coffee company, meaning they make sure to remove more carbon from the atmosphere than they emit during the process of importing and roasting their coffee. One of the main ways they accomplish their goal is donating a portion of the proceeds earned from every pound sold to fund reforestation in Ecuador’s Mindo cloud forest. So yeah, this is good coffee, but it's also a lot more than that.
Offering 100% Ethiopian Yirgacheffe in 8- ounce vacuum packed bags, Marley Coffee is sustainably grown in Jamaica. Customers enjoy it for its fruity, medium bodied flavor. It is said to have berry and floral notes with no bitter after taste. Some noted that it has a smooth flavor that is worth trying for its low acid and good taste. It is one of many popular coffees in the Marley Coffee brand.
Made from hearty Indonesian beans, these medium-roast coffee pods have deep and woodsy notes that are nicely balanced out by a fruity berry flavor and nice bright acidity. Reviewers describe this blend as their go-to single-serve morning roast because of its smooth, rich, "down-to-earth" flavor without any bitterness. These pods are compatible with any Keurig single-serve coffee machine. 
With this Colombian grown organic coffee in a K-cup, this is the perfect caffeine fix that can stimulate the senses. Similar to other dark roasts, you can expect notes of dark chocolate in this coffee. The beans have been through a long roasting process, which also means that the acidity is reduced. There are also toasted notes with the aftertaste of this coffee, but you do not have to worry since it does not have a pronounced bitterness.
We tried the light roast. It was light, but with just the right amount of flavor for us. It would be best to drink it straight. Other customers found it too bland and preferred mixing it with other roasts to give it more body. This coffee also has low acidity. Another pro is that it is very affordable. Because of this, we rate Subtle Earth Organic Gourmet Coffee with four out of five stars.
Who would have guessed that one of the most impressive coffee roasters in the West would have come up in the land of hot drinks abstainers? No doubt the pioneering team behind this single estate-only operation were slightly surprised, too—at a time when Salt Lake had very little good coffee to speak of, they took the plunge; now it's hard to imagine Utah's impressive artisan scene without them.
Start their day with a cup of coffee that’s ultra-smooth and has a delicately sweet fragrance. Because these cups brew a single-serving cup of coffee, it’s ready in just seconds, which is great for anyone who finds themselves short on time during hectic weekday mornings. Unlike dark roasts, this light roast offers a delicate blend of distinct flavors. It’s roasted for a shorter amount of time, which helps it retain a higher caffeine count. The crisp flavor of this light roast coffee makes it the perfect starting point for the perfect blend coffee. Add sugar or sweetener, creamer or coconut milk. No matter how you like to dress up your coffee, this morning blend coffee makes a perfect canvas.
By now, the reputation of this roaster—with its collection of four standout cafes—reaches far beyond Northwest Arkansas (yes, home of Walmart), and while the expertly-sourced beans tend to do most of the talking here, the precision with which you'll typically find an Onyx barista working is most impressive, almost as if they had masses of competition waiting to steal away their customers, out the front door. (They don't. Not for miles.)
I don't write reviews often, but I am sipping my first cup and I felt compelled to write about this lovely little coffee. The aroma of the freshly ground beans is robust, the scent as it is brewing is mouthwatering, and the first sip, God, the first sip is absolutely heavenly, as is every sip thereafter. For two years I lived just down the street from a coffee bean seller in Mexico City (the family that owned the store also owned the farm where the beans were grown). Their coffee was the finest coffee I have ever tasted in my life, nothing I have tried in the nearly five years since my stint in Mexico City has even come close to that. Until now. I will definitely be purchasing more of this coffee in the near future for myself -- and for gifts for friends and family who are coffee lovers.
If you want a smooth coffee with a clean taste, this is one product that you should not miss. It is made by a company that has been in the business for more than three decades, which can speak a lot about its quality. Meanwhile, with a medium roast, this is for those who want the best of both light and dark roasts. It also just ahs the right burst of acidity that won’t make your stomach upset.
Iowa's capital ranked as the fastest growing city in the Midwest last year, a trend being driven by the likes of Brad Penna and Nam Ho, young Southern Californians who moved here in search of a lower cost of living and a different pace of life. Their ambitious roaster/café, opened just last summer around the corner from the Pappajohn Sculpture Park, is shaking up the city's coffee culture, and the locals—new and old—appear to be loving it. We certainly are.
Many reviewers pick up notes of honey, almonds, and dried fruit in the flavor profile with zero bitterness and low acidity. Ideally, this blend would be finely ground, brewed as a traditional espresso, and served in a smaller format, but many reviewers coarse-grind this blend and brew it using their drip coffee maker or French press with great success. Most reviewers actually claim that they've switched to Lavazza for their everyday morning coffee from other more well-known American brands.
Even though it might be difficult to find where to buy coffee beans, you now know where you can get them, and at a great price. The Jungle Costa Rican Coffee Beans Organic Dark Roast Whole Bean have a smooth dark roast and it delivers a great aroma, a light body, and a mild acidity. The Jungle Costa Rican Coffee Beans Organic Dark Roast Whole Bean is 100% organic certified by either USDA as well as by Farming Europe. The coffee beans are grown in the fertile soils near banana, cocoa, and sugarcane plantations.
There are a lot of positive words associated with this 2 lb. bag, including grown responsibly, sourced responsibly, roasted responsibly, packaged responsibly… And, while the writer in me groans at the repeated usage of the word “responsibly,” I logically know that all of those things are good. So, ya know, good job, Real Good Coffee Co. You’re good.
“This coffee with Lion’s Mane and Chaga mushroom extracts has changed my morning routine forever. I gave up coffee about six months ago as it was not agreeing with my stomach — often causing indigestion — and was leaving me crashing in the early afternoon. Soon after, I discovered Four Sigmatic’s instant coffee blend that gave me ZERO negative side effects and had me energized without jitters or stomach issues throughout the whole day. Now they have true ground coffee, which makes the experience that much more wonderful. I can finally whip out my French press again! I am obsessed with this stuff. It tastes great and offers some wonderful healing benefits. Could you ask for more?”
Yo, products made specifically for mothers are the type of products I get the most hype about. Mommee Coffee was dreamed up during their founder's second pregnancy, because she was tired of having to settle for tasteless decaf and equally tired of feeling guilty when she drank full-caf brews. They design their blends to be safe-to-consume during every stage of motherhood, so they're low acid, chemical-free, fair trade blends that are as caffeinated (or non-caffeinated) as a mom requires: decaf, quarter caf, half caf, and full caf.
Also try The recent transformation of Los Angeles café culture has been an absolute pleasure to observe—from the just-right Civil Coffee in Highland Park to the cutting-edge Coffee Hall in Chinatown (look for local roaster Compelling Coffee in the rotation) to local legend Tyler Wells' downtown kiosk, Nice Coffee, to the initially controversial (but really, very good) Weird Wave Coffee in Boyle Heights, for the most exciting developments, look east.
With all of these wonderful coffee subscription services to choose from, how exactly are you supposed to pick the best one? It all comes down to your personal preferences. If, for example, you know exactly what you like, then one of the more limited services may be right for you. But if you like to experiment, you may want to choose services that send you different coffee every month or have many different roasters to choose from.
If you are thinking of buying K-cups, we have you covered in the rest of this guide. This post, however, will be focused on those that are organic. We will go through five of the top picks that are available on the market and some of the things that make them exceptional. We’ll also give you a quick look at some of the essential factors that you have to consider.
The best light roast and whole bean coffee was our top pick, Verena Street – Mississippi Grogg. The office chatter surrounding this taste test made it a staple on the office shopping list and is now in the rotation of coffee blends brewed. Receiving the most eight, nine and tens across the scoring board, people loved the natural hazelnut flavor found in the roast.
In terms of flavor, arabica beans win the prize. They brew a more delicate cup of coffee with slight overtones of berry and a high level of acidity. Robustas have a lot more caffeine – nearly twice as much as arabica beans – but they also have a stronger, more bitter taste that can be a bit harsh. Still, there are high-quality robustas available, and these beans do make a good cup of espresso.
Strength control is understood to be regulated by the ratio of coffee to water. For example, more ground coffee and less water would result in a stronger brew. But, how does that work with a single serve machine, when you cannot regulate the amount of coffee and yet you can regulate the strength and volume of water simultaneously? In other words, you can select an 8-ounce drink to be strong or weak, but without changing the amount of coffee.
The biggest draw of organic coffee is that it's grown and harvested without chemical assistance. There are no pesticides, herbicides, fungicides or insecticides used in the agricultural process. If fertilizer is needed to help the beans grow, farmers use natural things like compost and coffee pulp. This means that organic coffee shoppers are getting home-grown beans without nasty additives of any kind.
Finally, coffee production is being affected by global climate change. Coffee requires extremely stable temperature conditions in order to thrive. In its natural habitat, elevation and forest would provide additional temperature stability. But today, we are seeing that the “coffee belt” we relied upon for so long is changing, and the regions where coffee can be grown are also changing, with a huge effect on local farmers and economies that rely on coffee exports to survive.
You won’t find local Robusta coffee in the United States. This coffee variety is exclusively grown in the Eastern Hemisphere, primarily in Africa. While some countries are able to grow both arabica and Robusta coffee, the climate needed is very specific and curated for Robusta coffee. If you like strong, rich coffee with nothing but coffee flavor and caffeine for days, you’re looking for Robusta.
Many roasters queried us to ask if they could submit coffees they felt confident were farmed without use of synthetic inputs because of their familiarity with the producers. Nevertheless, for this report, we concluded that we needed to stick to reviewing coffees that consumers could be assured were produced under organic conditions using organic protocols. We went so far as to check the organic documentation at the farm level provided by importers for all the coffees we review here.
Equal Exchange Organic Coffee prides itself on being Fair Trade, and for good reason. They do a lot of outreach and connection with their farmers to make sure they are well taken care of and everything is on the up and up. Currently, their breakfast blend coffee sits at 4.4 stars, along with an Amazon's Choice badge. So Amazon seems to approve of them, enough to recommend them outwardly. Let's see if we can find out what's so good. 
At Equal Exchange, we only use the finest Fair Trade and organic coffee beans available, but we want our Fair Trade coffees to do more than please the palate. It’s our mission to provide Fair Trade coffees that empower small-scale farmers and their communities. Our certified Fair Trade coffees go beyond the cup, supporting women’s leadership at producer co-ops, environmental preservation through crop diversity, improved yields through soil analysis, and much more. When you purchase Equal Exchange Fair Trade coffee, you’re supporting an equitable trade system for small-scale farmers. Learn more about the farmers who provide our Fair Trade coffee, and let us know what you think of the results.
No study we have seen links prepared or brewed coffee, including espresso, with significant levels of contaminants. Typical is a 2008 Australian study which meticulously tested a wide range of coffee beverages purchased randomly in the Australian food service market and found that “there were no detectable levels in any of the coffee [beverages] sampled. This included all 98 pesticide residues, 18 PAHs, beryllium, mercury and ochratoxin A.” The key findings summary concluded that “The overall levels of chemical contaminants identified in this survey are generally considered to be low and are consistent with those reported in other comparable surveys both in Australia and overseas.”
For the first time we allowed ready-to-drink, cold-brewed, pure black coffees into consideration for the Top 30. Two superb cold-brewed, bottled coffees made the list, the Bird Rock Red Bourbon Honey-Processed Cold Brew at No. 17 (94 points) and the States Coffee Reserve Cold Brew (from a Tanzania single-origin coffee) at No. 21 (also 94 points). For more on the cold coffee trend see our report Cold-Brewed Black Coffees: Quality in a Can.
I am no coffee expert, but do enjoy 1-3 cups of coffee a day. I recently read of all pesticides used in coffee so decided to go organic, I've tried many from different places but this is by far the best cup I've had, my girlfriend thinks so too. It's very mild and can definitely feel the caffeine rush w/o going over the board like the energizer bunny. I ground the beans every morning while she takes the shower and throw them in our bobble presse (http://www.amazon.com/Presse-bobble-The-Brewer-Black/dp/B00T088TTM) with wonderful results. Can't think of a better way of starting our morning. #InLove

Tiny Footprint Coffee is the world's first carbon-negative coffee company, meaning they make sure to remove more carbon from the atmosphere than they emit during the process of importing and roasting their coffee. One of the main ways they accomplish their goal is donating a portion of the proceeds earned from every pound sold to fund reforestation in Ecuador’s Mindo cloud forest. So yeah, this is good coffee, but it's also a lot more than that.

Another great choice for anyone looking to experiment with coffee from different roasters, MistoBox offers a highly personalized subscription. When you sign up, you’ll be asked about your personal coffee preferences. Based on your answers, MistoBox will select a variety of coffee for you to try and send it to your door. How often you get new coffee is completely up to you, as you can customize every part of your subscription experience with them.
In many ways, coffee is like wine. Depending on the area of origin, the degree of roast and grind levels, the taste of a particular coffee can vary drastically. Plus there is also the added layer of mixing different coffee beans to create unique blends. So, finding the best ground coffee brand for you depends entirely on your tastes and preferences. This brings us to the first section of our guide:

Unless you're a total geek, keeping up with the very latest in coffee tech can be a bit difficult, but we can't talk about Fort Wayne—perhaps the last place you were expecting to be talking about, right now—without talking about the fact that the city, better known as the birthplace of the Frigidaire, is also home of the Modbar, currently one of the hottest names in espresso extraction—so hot, in fact, that the company managed to attract La Marzocco as an investor and distribution partner. These days, Modbar founding partner Corey Waldron has gone back to his barista roots with this roaster/café operation, located just above the confluence of the three rivers that meet here at the heart of the city. (It's not just a thing that happens in Pittsburgh, you know.)
Am now on my second or third Kilo of Kick Ass...... After first finding Kick Ass, I continued to try other coffees and roasts in a search for "my preferred coffee". I still have other coffees yet to try, but have tried quite a few different high rated coffees... Some were good and some I gave away.... I do know what I want now in a coffee and roast... I want it all !!!! Now is that too much to ask ????? I grind my own beans and use a good brewer with no burner to scorch my coffee.... Kicking Horse is the only coffee that I keep coming back to.... I will tell you that so far I am torn between two favorites...... And they are both Kicking Horse Coffees !!! .... 454 Horsepower and Kick Ass...... The Kick Ass has a far superior body, while the 454 ... full review
Also try Long content with convenience coffee (rhymes with Schmunkin up north, and Schwawa down south), New Jersey is suddenly fascinated with the good stuff. In downtown Newark, friendly Black Swan Espresso is just one of many new arrivals along once-blighted Halsey Street, while in the rough-and-tumble state capital, micro-roaster Trenton Coffee House & Records began life as a coffee bike. The product here is thoroughly modern, but the vibe is nearly mid-1990's punk. (Don't miss this place.)
Nescafe is a huge multinational brand of coffee owned by Nestle. We commend Nescafe partnering with for the Rainforest Alliance, the Sustainable Agriculture Network (SAN), and the Common Code for the Coffee Community (4C) to be sure they are following internationally recognized sustainability standards but they do not offer organic certified coffees. Therefore, their coffee’s may contain chemicals and mold. They only offer instant coffees, ground coffee, or pods so again, freshness is a concern.

Single serve coffee maker is for you if you consume 1-2 cups of coffee daily. Coffee pods are really expensive (around 1$ each) and generate massive amounts of plastic waste each year. My personal best is Nespresso Vertuo by Breville. The machine automatically identifies the right amount of water from the pod, no heat up time and just looks good on the counter. Check out all the Nespesso and Keurig coffee makers.
The Gorilla Decaf Coffee is a better choice for single serve coffee. It features a full-city roasted taste that is large, strong yet mellow.This coffee is decaffeinated through the use of natural water process. So the final product is ideal for all day brewing. It’s USDA certified organic and fairly traded. Hence, it’s free from chemical fertilizers, herbicides, and pesticides.
Run a water cycle. Unless you've just finished using the Keurig, the water in the deposit is likely going to be tepid, meaning lower brewing temperatures (a common problem with the Keurig). Before you brew, run a water cycle to heat up the water and the machine. Follow it quickly with a brew, and the water will be slightly hotter—ergo, a better brewing temperature.
A coffee crop also requires a great deal of water, particularly when it is being grown quickly. It takes 37 gallons of water to produce enough beans for just one cup of coffee. Coffee is often produced in countries with a shortage of water, such as Ethiopia, and the combination of high water consumption and high fertilizer and pesticide use can lead to water degradation and pollution in water runoff.
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